Tag Archives: type 2 diabetes mellitus

Diabetes Explained: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is the most widespread type of Diabetes on the planet. Millions of people across the globe are affected by Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and at least 30% of them are not aware of that yet. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is diagnosed when the body doesn’t produce sufficient quantities of insulin or our cells ignore and reject the insulin. Our body runs on glucose, which is broken down from starches and sugars. When glucose goes into our blood and builds up there instead of going to our cells that leads to Diabetes complications.

type 2 diabetes mellitusDefinition of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Wikipedia: “Diabetes mellitus type 2 – formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Diabetes is often initially managed by increasing exercise and dietary modification. As the condition progresses, medications may be needed.”

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by genetic factors and environmental factors. People with family members that have Type 2 Diabetes are more likely to suffer from the same condition. Not just diabetes, but other medical issues as well, like high blood pressure, obesity or high cholesterol levels. Certain ethnic groups have higher chances of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; African, Asian and Hispanic are more likely to develop this condition. What we eat and how active we are as well as genetic causes are all part of developing Type 2 Diabetes.

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are the same as with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Once diagnosed you need to be treated or Diabetes can lead to other complications that will endanger your health. In most cases you will not have to take insulin like with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, but you will need to take certain medication and monitor your blood sugar levels and cholesterol levels. Regular activity and prescribed diet should keep your Type 2 Diabetes in check.

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Diabetes Explained: Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes is a type of diabetes found only in pregnant women. Around 4% of pregnant women will develop this type of Diabetes during their pregnancy, which doesn’t necessarily mean that they will have diabetes after giving birth to their child. Unlike Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Gestational Diabetes carries a great risk for the baby.

Gestational DiabetesGestational Diabetes according to Wikipedia: “Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally has few symptoms and it is most commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect inappropriately high levels of glucose in blood samples. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied. No specific cause has been identified, but it is believed that the hormones produced during pregnancy increase a woman’s resistance to insulin, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance. “

Causes of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus are not quite known, but due to hormonal changes during the pregnancy your body has a hard time keeping up with the needs and the production of insulin. In the end the woman’s body doesn’t get enough energy from the intake of food.

The symptoms are exactly like with Type1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. What causes the biggest issue with this type of diabetes is the risk for the baby. If Gestational Diabetes is caught in time there shouldn’t be a great risk, but if left unchecked it can cause the following issues:

–    Baby can have a low blood glucose right after being born
–    Baby can also have breathing problems
–    Can have extra fat

To make sure that your baby is ok the doctors will run immediate tests like ultrasound, special stress tests and kick counts. The issue here is that both mother and child are at risk of having Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus for the rest of their lives.

In some cases the symptoms of Gestational Diabetes will not show but nevertheless they may cause increased risk of high blood pressure, possibility of giving birth to a large baby which would require a Cesarean section.

On the bright side in most cases Gestational Diabetes disappears after giving birth. But if you are not careful later you are at high risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. You may also develop Gestational Diabetes if you get pregnant again.

Treatment is based on the seriousness of your condition. In some cases insulin may be needed, but in most cases a prescribed diet and regular activity will help you overcome this condition.

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Diabetes Explained: Rare Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are various rare types of Diabetes Mellitus. Some of them are genetic and other are caused by environmental causes, like steroid diabetes which is caused by misuse of steroids which leads the body’s imbalance and causes the body to produce insulin in little quantities or leaves the body in a state in which the body cannot fully process the insulin.

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

There are types of Diabetes Mellitus that are paired with certain diseases and cause a new breed of diabetes, like Cystic Fibrosis Diabetes Mellitus which is only found with people who have Cystic Fibrosis.

The fact is that most of these rare forms of Diabetes are still a mystery to us and we know very little about them, for example Congenital Diabetes Mellitus which causes insulin secretion defects on a genetic level. We are still not sure what causes it and how to deal with it. From the rare types of Diabetes Mellitus there are three forms that are researched in detail, MODY or Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young, Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X.

MODY – Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

MODY or Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young is genetically inherited type of Diabetes Mellitus. Unlike other types of Diabetes mellitus where the inheritance is only a risk factor, with MODY this is a trait. It is very similar to the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as it leads to insulin deficiency. Unlike regular Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus where the average diabetics are over-weight and older in age, MODY claims thin and active people in their early twenties and late teens. MODY doesn’t always require insulin treatment, it is different from case to case. One of its traits is that it is hardly recognized in the early stages and most people find out about it in their early twenties. Only 2% of Diabetics have Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young.

Impaired Glucose Tolerance

“Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. IGT may precede type 2 diabetes mellitus by many years. IGT is also a risk factor for mortality.” As described on the Wikipedia.

Metabolic Syndrome – Syndrome X

Metabolic Syndrome or popularly known as Syndrome X is actually a combination of various medical disorders which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. What is the scariest part about Metabolic Syndrome is that it affects 1 out of 5 people, and with age it turns into Diabetes Mellitus if not treated properly. Almost one quarter of the population in the US suffer from Metabolic Syndrome.

These are all serious conditions that need to be treated. Rare types of Diabetes Mellitus are always a great issue as they are very hard to notice, which is their greatest difficulty. Keeping constant checkups with your doctor will ensure that you recognize any of these types of Diabetes Mellitus in time.

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Long Term Type 2 Diabetes Management

Those who have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus know that this is a progressive disease that can get worse over the course of years. People with Diabetes Type 2 usually take heavy medication or insulin, depending on their state. The best form of treatment is taking care of your body, because even with all the medication and insulin you take if you don’t take care of your body your blood sugar levels will rise and get too high.

diabetes managementThe fact surrounding Diabetes Type 2 is that it can greatly affect your organs and some parts of the body leading to health complications. Even with all the treatment and all the checkups and tests there are some things you need to do in order to take care of your body and ensure the best health with Diabetes Type 2.

The most threatening conditions with diabetes type 2 are stroke and heart diseases, to reduce the risk of both the first thing you need to do is keep your cholesterol levels and your blood pressure under constant control. Physical activity should be kept at a certain level that is recommended by your doctor, usually around 30 minutes a day. Of course the diet needs to be healthy, regular healthy diet is fine, so whole grain foods and fruits and vegetables should do just fine. And one of the most important things you need to do is quit smoking.

There are also great risks of ki9dney diseases and complications, in order to avoid any kidney complications you should start with keeping your regular blood pressure below 130/80, but again, this varies from [person to person so your doctor will know the best. In some cases the diet needs to be without meat as less protein is good for people with kidney damage. Some medication also might be prohibited as there are plenty meds that can’t be consumed by people with kidney damage.

Besides kidney and heart disease, many people with diabetes have a great risk of foot complications. Be sure that your footwear is comfortable as you may get blisters, and when you have diabetes type 2 you don’t want blisters as they may lead to infection and in many cases infection with type 2 diabetes can easily become too serious and lead to amputation. Make sure that there aren’t any cuts, blisters, calluses, any redness or any other foot problems.

And the last thing you need to take care of at all times is your skin and the possibility of skin complications. Make sure that your skin is clean and without cuts, the same as with your feet. Any cut can easily lead to an infection, so check for redness and sore spots as well as cuts and bruises. Make sure that you drink plenty of fluids so that your skin is moist and healthy.

These are just a few basic advices that will help you manage your diabetes and other health issues and make sure that there aren’t any complications that may follow due to diabetes.

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a serious disease and we already covered the basics, as for the treatment, the immediate goal of the diabetes type 2 treatment is to lower the glucose level in the blood. The long term goal of treatment is to prevent further diabetes related complications.

diabetes mellitus treatmentAlthough there are medications for diabetes treatment these are the things that your doctor will take care of, what every doctor will however recommend and “prescribe” is the home treatment for diabetes. This is a life long disease that needs to be controlled and kept in order, so the two types of treatment are exercise and diet. We will also talk about medication for diabetes mellitus type 2 at the end of the article.

In order to make sure that your diet and exercising is going the way they are supposed to you need to learn the management skills and test your diabetes progress, the following skills are essential in diabetes mellitus treatment:
–    Testing and recording the blood glucose level (monitoring)
–    What you should eat and when
–    How to take the needed medication
–    How to treat low and high levels of blood glucose

The need to constantly monitor diabetes is essential for the treatment. Recording your blood glucose level will tell your doctor how well your diet is performing as well as how much the exercises influence your overall state of health.

For monitoring blood glucose level you can use a glucometer, which is a device used to provide accurate readings of blood glucose levels and can be found in most pharmacies. The tests are performed per need, so in the beginning you may need to test two times a day, or specifically after a meal or before the meal and also when you wake up and before you go to bed, the schedule will be created by your doctor. The results are used to adjust your diet and exercise levels as well as medication.

Continue to read about diet and weight control, physical activity and medication used during diabetes mellitus treatment.

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